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Influence of Westernized Culture on Women Via Television Drama and Films: A Survey of Lahore District
The study is conducted to investigate the “Influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv drama and films.” Tv drama and films play an important role in women and youth life as it influences their lifestyle, dressing sense and language as well. In this research, the researcher wants to know the influence of western culture on eastern women. The data was collected from a sample of 130 women in Lahore via an online questionnaire survey. Five research questions were developed in this research which focuses on the influence of western culture on eastern women, their lifestyle, dressing sense, their speaking style and for how long the influence remains on them. The researcher analyzed that there are choices to women whether to influenced or not but the western culture replacing eastern culture and playing an important role in people’s life through drama and film content. It’s also the fact that only a small number of women are in favor to ban the western content.
Western Culture, Eastern Women, Drama, Film
In today’s era cable tv is available in every second home as it is easily available in every area, and it is a cheap mean of entertainment with low cost and a wide variety of content. It gives an opportunity for every viewer to watch all kinds of contents, including local and foreign programs. Cable tv network is rapidly increasing in Pakistan as it provides easy access, access to satellite channels, low cost and a huge viewership to people interested in entertainment programs (Zia, 2003). Viewers like to watch Indian content, including films and dramas because it provides them with infotainment and entertainment as well. Instead of giving entertainment, Indian films and dramas are affecting women psyche like their living pattern, dressing style, fashion sense and language as well.
Every country has its own culture, and identification like Pakistan is an Islamic country which has its unique values, ideas, beliefs influenced by its religion Islam. There are two forms of culture, including material and non-material. Material deals with things having physical existence, whereas non-material deals with things which is non-physical, media has such power which influences both forms of cultures (Dash, 2004).
The Indian dramas and films have a frequent and intensive negative impact on eastern social, cultural, religious beliefs and values of Pakistani women. Pakistan has an impact if Indian dressing culture as well. Now, women like to wear Sarhi, Chori Pajama, Sleeveless dress, Short shirts and less use of Chadar (Batool,2007). Pakistani media also start copying western content as they start wearing dresses like Indian movies and dramas. Their content starts reflecting the western culture in it, which is having a bad influence on eastern women.
Statement of the Problem
This study was undertaken because of rare research on the influence of western culture on eastern women. There is a kind of debate on westernization, its impact, applications of modern theories via tv dramas and films but till now there are hardly few researches in this field. The focus of my research is on the influence of Indian dramas and films on Pakistani women. Purpose of this research is to find out the overall impacts of westernized culture on Pakistani society, especially women watching Indian dramas and films. This study will explore, to which extent western culture via tv have affected the eastern women especially their thoughts, beliefs, behavior, dressing, language, lifestyle and cultural values, norms, ethics and customs as well.
Background of the Study
The researcher selected this topic to find out the influence of westernized culture on eastern women’s behavior, dressing, language, beliefs, lifestyle and customs. Westernized culture is influencing eastern women psychologically to some extent. The researcher will find out whether women start adopting western culture in daily life, does western culture has influence for long term or short term, does western culture start replacing eastern culture in Pakistani societies etc.
The researcher chooses a survey method for the study because the researcher wanted to know different views of women in this subject. Survey through the questionnaire will help to find out a different point of women belong to different class and societies. The study will focus on women of Lahore living in different societies with different lifestyles, habits and routines.
· To study the influence of westernized culture on eastern women’s behavior, dressing, language, beliefs, lifestyle and customs.
· To explore, to which extent eastern women adopt western culture in daily life.
· To determine the effects of tv dramas and films on eastern women.
· To check whether the influence is for long term or short term.
· To check, to which level western culture has been merged in our Islamic culture.
Significance of the Study
Global culture became possible because of the latest technology. Cable tv is spreading across the board and having an impact on language, dressing, lifestyle, and culture. The reason for this research is to find out the influence of westernized culture on eastern women. In this study, the researcher will analyze how much Indian dramas and films influence eastern women via tv films and dramas. This analysis increases the importance of study because if an important medium like tv of a country starts showcasing other cultures, then the viewers are rapidly persuaded to adopt those cultures. This research will help to give the right direction to eastern women who are getting inspired by western culture and start following it on a daily basis. It can be proved helpful to overcome distances from Islamic culture which eastern women are experiencing due to Indian dramas and films.
This the most important stage of the research process as it gives an opportunity to reread previous researches to get an idea about the topic. It saves our time, efforts and money as well because it gives us a chance to recognize one path to working on without redoing the already done search.
Here the topic of discussion is “influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv drama and films an analysis of Lahore”. The purpose of this research is to check the influence of modern culture on eastern women’s behavior, dressing, language, beliefs and customs. This research will check whether the viewers are constantly being influenced by watching westernized culture in dramas and films and whether they are adopting it in their everyday life as well. The area of this research will be Lahore as other researches belong to other cities, and it will check the time period of influence on viewers whether it last longer or not.
Khan and Arif (2009) explain in their research that cable tv network, which is providing foreign content in every house causing Americanization. Researchers further added that there is a lack of research and investigation, and many of the situations remain blurred due to this condition. Scholars describe that the basic purpose of this research was to analyze cultural aspects of tv cable programs and to investigate its effects. The researcher selected the youth of Multan as a sample. Scholars used two methodologies, content analysis and survey to get the result. Researchers conclude that Indian dramas are changing youth mind and encouraging them to adopt western culture via cable tv programs.
Qamar et.al (2012) describe in their research that every country has its own culture and identification like Pakistan is an Islamic country which has its unique values, ideas, beliefs influenced by its religion Islam. The objective of research’s study was to check the role of media in people life, and power media have to influence the human mind in Pakistani society. 120 people from Faisalabad city was selected by the researcher. The researcher did a survey through a multistage sampling technique. Results of scholar study confirmed that mostly respondent was aware of the influence they are getting from western content. Researchers conclude that the language, dressing, lifestyle and norms are highly influenced by Indian culture.
Sadiq et.al (2014) describe in their research that every community has its own culture, which represents their community. Every country has its own culture, and identification like Pakistan is an Islamic country which has its unique values, ideas, beliefs influenced by its religion Islam. The researcher selected a sample from Layyah to check the impact of western culture showcasing in every house via Indian dramas and films. Researchers apply multitasking sampling technique on 120 viewers of Layyah city. Researchers concluded that people are getting influenced by western culture, and availability of cable tv is playing an important part in it.
Yousaf et.al (2014) explains that watching Indian movies and dramas are best time spending thing for people in Pakistan comparing to any other activity in this study researchers concise that watching Indian dramas and movies influence social interactions of people. Researchers selected 16 to 35 age group of females from village Sahiwal Sialkot. Researchers concluded that people used to spend time with family in the past, but now they spend their precious time watching tv and Indian dramas and films. Researcher use cultivation theory to define clearly people’s way of watching tv and involving in it too much.
Aziz et.al (2014) describe that this research will study changes that occur in people’s dressing, lifestyle and way of talking after watching dramas and films on tv. The researcher took 100 women of 16 to 30 years age group from tehsil Karor Lal Eason district Layyah having cable access. The scholar will check the time spending, favorite channels, habits and favorite dramas and films. Researchers analyses that people are that much influenced by Indian dramas and films that they start using Hindi words in their conversation with family relatives and friends. Scholars further added that Indian culture is piercing our society slowly.
Ali et.al (2015) investigates impact occurs in language and dressing of women in Sialkot using 100 women from 16 to 30years age group viewing tv for more than two years. The researcher makes a questionnaire to collect data from respondents. The researcher added that this study would record the respondent’s level of viewing, preferred channels, consumption patterns, control over remote and favorite watching time. The scholar is concise that the maximum watching of Indian dramas is cultivating their culture in the roots of our society. People start speaking Hindi words intentionally, unintentionally and start copying their interaction patterns as well.
Shah et.al (2016) evaluate the intellectual and interactive effects of watching Indian dramas at primetime. Researchers will also monitor viewership of primetime dramas using the purposive method of sampling on 300 female youth from Peshawar. Scholars analyses the extent of watching primetime dramas keeping in view the age and education of respondents. Scholars describe that with increasing age women reduce watching Indian dramas and films. Researchers conclude that there was no adoption of Indian culture after a certain age limit.
Malik (2017) describe that the idea of uniqueness brings a lot of changes not only in the western world, but it has also prevailed over the east. The researcher highlighted that with the passage of time, modernism spread its roots in the entire world. Scholar further explains that tv plays an important role in spreading modern believes and customs among people all over the world. Furthermore, portraying Indian looks and characters in Pakistani dramas start promoting westernization and start replacing our culture.
Waheed (2018) describe in research that new technologies play an important role in influencing people, but it totally depends on viewers to get negative or positive impact watching Indian dramas and films. Researcher analyses students of Kinnaird college as samples and bar charts as a tool to gather information. The researcher describes that children learn different behaviours from their mothers as mothers are the first institute for children. The researcher took 100 women from 16 to 30 years age group viewing tv for more than two years. The researcher added that this study would record the respondent’s level of viewing, preferred channels, consumption patterns, control over remote and favorite watching time. The researcher further added that popular dramas cultivate Indian cultures in our society.
Khan (2020) explain that every country has its own culture and identification like Pakistan is an Islamic country which has its unique values, ideas, beliefs influenced by its religion Islam. The researcher describes that Indian movies and dramas are much liked in Pakistan, especially by youth and Pakistan youth is influenced by Indian movies. The scholar is concise that Indian dramas are destroying our Islamic culture badly. The researcher concluded that the Pakistani government and regularity authorities should ban such Indian movies which are against our culture and ideology.
The theoretical framework is about the theory which applies to a research study. It defines a theory which will explain the research with the help of theory and demonstrates an understanding of research and concept that is relevant to the topic of research.
In this study, the researcher investigates the influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv drama and films. This research will check whether the viewers constantly being influenced by watching westernized culture in dramas and films and whether they are adopting it in their everyday life as well. Westernized culture is intruded in our culture so deeply that our culture is faded away. Viewers get influenced watching such things like dresses, language, way of living, freedom of girls in their society and many other things they want for themselves.
The cultivation theory was proposed by George Gerbner According to the theory, people who watch tv for more than two hours get more influence. People who deeply watch tv start believing it as reality and get influenced by it. Cable network provides a wide variety of content to viewers having different ideas and conceptions based on race, gender, sexuality etc. viewers who watch tv more than two hours start absorbing ideas from tv and navigate it through life. Therefore, people behaviors and perception based on the content they consume. In today’s era, people depend more on tv than any other medium to understand the norms, values and mindset of people.
Relation with the Theory
Research is about the impact of western culture on eastern women who watch dramas and films on tv and is greatly influenced by western culture, their dresses, lifestyle and freedom. The theory applied to the research in a way that the theory declares that heavy viewers adopt what they watch on tv continuously, either positive or negative. Watching something continuously affects the eastern culture and traditions.
· To what extend western culture characters influence the eastern women.
· Does the impact of western dramas last longer on eastern women?
· Does women lifestyle get influenced by western culture?
· Does western culture affect our culture, norms and values badly?
· Do you think western culture also gives information to viewers?
Smith (2000) explain that methodology is usually an instruction for solving a problem, with specific components such as phases, tasks, methods, techniques and tools. A comprehensive data collection plans whose purpose is to answer the research question and test hypothesis are named as methodology.
Researchers used a survey method to check the influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv dramas and films. The researcher has conducted research with a quantitative approach to figure out the influence of westernized culture on eastern women via tv dramas and films.
The researcher selected women from 18 to 30 age group and have cable for more than 2 years as a sample.
The researcher will use a non-random purposive sampling technique as the sample of research is specific and selected, keeping in mind some characteristics like women of 18 to 30 age having access to the cable network. Purposive sampling basically includes respondents having specific characteristics or qualities and eliminate those who fail to meet the criteria.
This research will focus on 200 women as a sample as covering a whole population of Lahore was not an easy task.
The researcher uses the ‘questionnaire’ as a tool for data collection. The questionnaire consists of written questions used to find out the information about the topic. A close-ended questionnaire will make it easy to collect authentic data without any confusion and exaggeration.
The researcher will use the ‘percentage method’ to evaluate the results of the collected data in the ending phase of research.
In this research work, the terms used were operationally defined; the meaning defines how the researchers want the term to be understood in the text of this work.
western culture represents western norms, values, ethics and behaviors which belongs to foreign countries but rooted in different societies as well.
The female human being, as distinguished from a girl or a man.
The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.
TV showing dramas and films at a cheap rate of the cable network.
Variables are basically a concept or construct that can vary or have more than one value. There are two types of variables, including dependent and independent variable. The dependent variable is the variable that gets affected due to the independent variable. In this research dependent, variable are women having access to the cable network. Independent variable is the variable that causes an effect on the dependent variable. In this research, independent variables are foreign dramas and films showcasing westernized culture in it.
Graph 1: Since when you have Cable Network at Home
Graph 1 Show a researcher said that 81.2% people have cable network at home for more than 4 years and 12.8% people have cable for 2 years whereas only 6% people have cable for 4 years at their home.
Graph 2: How many Hours do you Spend Watching TV?
Graph 2 Show a researcher said that 91% people spend 2 to 4 hours watching tv and 4.5% spend 4 to 6 hours watching tv whereas 4.5% people watch tv for more than 6 hours.
Graph 3: Which Cable TV Channel do you usually Watch?
Graph 3 Show a researcher said that only 8.3% people watch colors tv and 5.3% people watch SONY tv whereas a huge percent of 86.5% people watch other channels.
Graph 4: How Often do you Watch an Indian Drama or Film?
Graph 4 Show a researcher said that 60.9% people watch an Indian movie or film once or twice in a week and 33.8% people watch one movie a day whereas only 5.3% people watch two or more movies in a day.
Graph 5: What do you like most in Indian Dramas and Films?
Graph 5 Show a researcher said that 77.4% people like songs in drama/films and 19.5% people like dialogues whereas only 3% people like romantic scenes.
Graph 6: Does Watching a Drama or Movie Influence your Lifestyle?
Graph 6 Show, a researcher, said that 55.6% people think that watching a drama or movie doesn’t influence their lifestyle and 30.8% people think that maybe they get influenced whereas only 13.5% feel that they get influenced by Indian film or drama.
Graph 7: Does Watching an Indian Movie or Drama Effects your Dressing Style?
Graph 7 Show a researcher said that 64.7% people think that watching an Indian movie or drama doesn’t affect their dressing style and 20.3% people thin that may be their dressing style get effected whereas only 15% people think that their dressing style gets effected.
Graph 8: Did you Learn Hindi Words Via Drama and Films?
Graph 8 Show a researcher said that 42.1% learned Hindi words from western content and 37.6% didn’t learn Hindi words whereas 20.3% people think maybe they have learnt and maybe not.
Graph 9: Did you Speak Hindi Words in Daily Life during Conversation with others?
Graph 9 Show a researcher said that 71.4% people don’t speak Hindi words in daily life during a conversation with others and 21.8% people think maybe but 6.8% people think that they speak Hindi words during a conversation.
Graph 10: Do you think Western Culture is Affecting our Culture Badly?
Graph 10 Show a researcher said that 80.5% people think that western culture is affecting our culture badly and 10.5% people think that maybe whereas only 9% people think no it’s not affecting.
Graph 11: Do you think women get influenced by female characters of Indian dramas?
Graph 11 Show a researcher said that 53.4% people think that women get influenced by female characters of Indian dramas and 32.3% people think that maybe whereas only 14.3% people think no women don’t get influenced by female characters.
Graph 12: How Long does a Hindi Movie or Film Keep Impact on Eastern Women?
Graph 12 Show a researcher said that 51.1% people think that Hindi movie keeps the impact on eastern women foe only 1 day and 33.1% people think that for more than 2 days whereas 15.8% people think that for 2 days it keeps the impact on women.
Graph 13: Do you think Eastern Women Start giving more Time to Dramas and Films then to Family and Children?
Graph 13 Show a researcher said that 39.1% people think that women do not give more time to dramas than to family and 31.6% people think that women give more time to dramas than to family whereas 29.3% people think maybe.
Graph 14: Do you think Girls of College and Universities start copying Dressing Style of Western Women after Watching them on TV?
Graph 14 Show a researcher said that 68.4% people think that girls of school and colleges start copying dressing style of western women and 22.6% people think that maybe whereas only 9% people are sure that girls do not copy dressing style of western women.
Graph 15: Do you agree that Western Culture starts Replacing Eastern Culture and People are Satisfied with it?
Graph 15 Show a researcher said that 51.1 person agrees that western culture starts replacing the eastern culture, and 38.3% people are neutral about it whereas 10.5% people disagree with it.
Graph 16: Do you think Western Culture start Affecting our Culture Norms, Ethics and Values?
Graph 16 Show, a researcher, said that 72.9% people think that western culture starts affecting our norms. Values and ethics and 18.8% people think that maybe whereas only 8.3% people think no.
Graph 17: Being a Muslim, do you Prefer Pakistani Channels to show Western Cultures on a Daily Basis?
Graph 17 Show a researcher said that 60.9% people disagree with western content airing on Pakistani channels and 28.6% people agree with this whereas 10.5% people think maybe.
Graph 18: Do you think without any western content watching tv will be boring and useless?
Graph 18 Show a researcher said that 69.2% people think that without western content watching tv will not be boring and useless and 21.1% people think maybe whereas 9.8% people think yes it will become boring.
Graph 19: Do you think Western Culture also give information to its Viewers?
Graph 19 Show a researcher said that 39.1% people think that western content also gives information to viewers and 34.6% thinks that maybe whereas 26.3% believes no.
Any Suggestion about Western Culture and its Influence on Eastern Women?
Researcher get mixed responses on this open-ended question. Few are below:
· We should see but not get influenced by it because it’s not according to our culture and religion.
· There are some restrictions in Islam regarding dressing, conversation, and more to protect yourself. But today’s generation following the western styles to look prominent and up to date. My suggestion is that, if you want to copy western style, do it but do in that sense you will not be out of the boundaries of Islam.
· It depends on the audience that how they perceive things. For example, as an eastern woman if I watch Indian dramas or English movies, I myself will be responsible for any negative or positive changes in me. So, it will be good for us to promote our own culture by watching Pakistani movies and tv shows rather than promoting western culture.
· I think that we should be mature enough to make a choice between good and bad shows and Indian drama channels only show crap so they should be definitely banned.
· I suggest we have to learn more about our religion and do not follow western culture as it is ruining our generation.
Open-ended questions result to mixed responses as many people were suggesting not to follow the western culture and many stated that it depends on us whether we get influenced or not whereas some were suggesting to ban the western content on Pakistani channels and promote Islam instead.
Analysis of Research Questions
First research question states that to what extend western culture characters influence the eastern women while second research question states that makes the impact of western dramas last longer on eastern women while third research question states that does women lifestyle get influenced by western culture while fourth research question states that does western culture affects our culture, norms and values badly while fifth research question states that do you think western cultures also gives information to the viewers. Keeping in view these research question above data was collected and analyzed.
Result of Research Questions Show that
To what Extend Western Culture Characters Influence the Eastern Women
The researcher said that 53.4% people think that female get influenced by western culture’s character and 32.3% people think that maybe whereas 14.3% think that women do not get influenced by western culture’s characters.
Does the Impact of Western Dramas Last Longer on Eastern Women?
The researcher said that 51.1% people think that the impact remains for 1 day and 33.1% people think that more than 2 days, whereas 15.8% think that impact remains for 2 days.
Does Women’s Lifestyle get Influenced by Western Culture?
The researcher said that 55.6% people think that women’s lifestyle does not get influenced and 30.8% people think that maybe whereas 13.5% think that women’s lifestyle gets influenced.
Does Western culture affect our Culture, Values and Norms Badly?
The researcher said that 72.9% people think that western culture affects our values and norms and 18.8% people think that maybe whereas only 8.3% thinks no.
Do you think Western Culture also gives Information to Viewers?
The researcher said that 39.1% people think yes it gives information and 34.1% thinks maybe whereas 26.3% thinks no.
Western culture is affecting eastern women and youth somehow. Our research shows that women are not much influenced by western lifestyle or dressing style neither they are giving more time to dramas then family but many starts learning Hindi words and youth gets influenced by their dressing style as well. Basically, western culture base dramas are doing both good and bad to eastern women and youth, but it depends on us how we take it. Whereas our culture is somehow getting influenced because of western culture, our Pakistani channels start airing western content, and our celebrities start dressing like western women, and people are okay about it.
Our research focuses on the influence of eastern culture on western women via drama and movies. Researcher select Lahore district to collect the data. In this research, the researcher finds that there is no such influence of western culture on eastern women, but it somehow affects their lifestyle and youth dressing sense as 68.4% people agree on that. In Pakistan, mostly youth get influenced by western characters, and it affects their dressing style as well. Western culture airing on tv channels in Pakistan plays an important role in the influence on women and youth. 60.9% of people think that western content should be banned on Pakistani channel as it is influencing our culture, norms and values badly as 72.9% people agree on that.
51.1%people thinks that the influence of western culture remains for 1 day on eastern women whereas 69.2% people agree that without western content watching tv will not be boring and useless. 39.1% people think that western content also gives information to viewers and 80.5% people think that western culture influence eastern culture badly whereas 51.1% people think that western culture starts replacing eastern culture. 39.1% person think that women give more time to the family then to dramas and 71.4% people also agree on that women don’t learn Hindi words and use in daily routine during a conversation with others.
Researcher relates its study to Sadiq et.al. Scholars also did a study on the influence of western culture on eastern women. Sadiq et.al (2014) describe in their research that every country has its own culture and identification like Pakistan is an Islamic country which has its unique values, ideas, beliefs influenced by its religion Islam. The researcher selected a sample from Layyah to check the impact of western culture showcasing in every house via Indian dramas and films. Researchers apply multitasking sampling technique on 120 viewers of Layyah city. Researchers concluded that people are getting influenced by western culture, and availability of cable tv is playing an important part in it.
Result of this research proves that Indian dramas have a great influence on eastern women. Lahore district women were chosen by the researcher to check the influence by watching western content. Women somehow get influenced by western content, but people think that it depends on women to decide what is good and what is not whereas some suggest banning the western content on Pakistani channels along with this some say that western content also gives information to viewers.
This research study aims to explore the influence of western culture on eastern women via tv film and drama in Lahore district. A researcher wants to investigate the changes that occur in eastern women after watching eastern content on tv. This research focuses on women from 18 to 30 years old to check the impact of western content on eastern women and youth.
The researcher concluded in this study after online survey that people have the power to select what they want to watch and what not and it totally depend on their will whether to get influenced watching western content or just to view it as an entertainment. Cultivation, theory defines that media is a platform which provides content for every age and content of every type, but it depends on a human being to select what is right and what is wrong for them. The survey also shows that people do not agree that western culture can replace eastern culture so easily, but it is somehow affecting our norms and values badly, and it will be okay if PEMRA bans western content on tv.
Suggestions and Recommendations
· Above research suggested that we should not give western culture that much importance which starts influencing our lifestyle.
· We should promote our culture in dramas, not western culture.
· Youth should focus on their study rather than western dressing style.
· We should put a limit to western content as it starts affecting our cultural values and ethics badly.
· PEMRA should make some rules and regulations regarding western content airing on tv.
· PEMRA should take some action about showcasing western style in Pakistani dramas as well.