Pakhtun Identity versus Militancy in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and FATA: Exploring the Gap between Culture of Peace and ilitancy
The Pakhtun culture had been flourishing between 484 - 425 BC, in the era of
Herodotus and Alexander the Great. Herodotus, the Greek historian, for
the first time, used the word Pactyans, for people who were living in parts of
Persian Satrapy, Arachosia between 1000 - 1 BC. The hymns’ collection from
an ancient Indian Sanskrit Ved used the word Pakthas for a tribe, who were
inhabitants of eastern parts of Afghanistan. Presently, the terms Afghan and
Pakhtun were synonyms till the Durand Line divided Afghanistan and Pakhtuns
living in Pakistan. For these people the code of conduct remained Pakhtunwali;
it is the pre-Islamic way of life and honour code based upon peace and
tranquillity. It presents an ethnic self-portrait which defines the Pakhtuns as an
ethnic group having not o ...
1-Hikmat Shah Afridi Ph.D scholar, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Manzoor Khan Afridi Assistant Professor,Department of Politics and IR, Islamic International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Syed Umair Jalal Junior Research Fellow, Humanity Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Conflict Resolution: Editorialization of Government- Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan Dialogue
Every newspaper publishes an editorial every day to state their official opinion
on the most important of issues. Among public and official policymakers,
editorials are taken seriously. This study undertook Pakistan’s two leading
newspapers’ editorials – Dawn and The Nation - on the peace talks between the
Pakistan government and the Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP). The editorials
published between January 2014 and July 2014 on the dialogues were studied.
Using agenda-setting approach, this study found that Dawn published 67 and
The Nation 61 editorials discussing stakeholders’ stance on the dialogue,
dialogues bodies, and disruption of dialogues to terrorism and TTP terms. The
study measured the editorials to answer research questions. ...
1-Hassan Shehzad Lecturer, Media and Communication Studies, Islamic International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Ahsan Raza Senior journalists, s, Dawn Newspaper, Pakistan.3-Zubair Shafi Ghauri PhD Candidate,Department of History,Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Pakistan has been following the prison system of the British Empire. The
Pakistani prison system has gone through many changes. Efforts have been
made to bring the prison system in Pakistan in conformity with the modern
prison system. The restoration of democracy in Pakistan has paved the way for
further reforms in the prison system. Many suggestions have been forwarded to
the authorities and have been requested for the modification of the inside
condition of Pakistani jails. The data for this paper have been collected from
Human Rights Organization/ Council of Pakistan, Islamic Ideological Council
and jail training institute Lahore. The research under focus is an attempt to
explore prison reforms in Pakistan in historical perspective and put forward
suggestions to in tune the pr ...
1-Zahid Anwar Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.2-S. Zubair Shah Ph.D. Scholar,Department of Political Science,University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.
Displacement from FATA Pakistan (2009-2016): Issues and Challenges
Federally Administered Tribal Area (FATA) of Pakistan is one of the most
neglected regions in the world as far as development is concerned. It has been
the hub of all sorts of illegal activities including militancy and export of
terrorism. Thus, it became inevitable for the government of Pakistan to act
against militants through military operations. Over the years, hundreds of
thousands of people have been displaced from the tribal areas of the country
due to conflicts. Moreover, military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been launched in
North Waziristan Agency in June 2014. Apart from its success, the operation
displaced around 0.5 million people. This paper evaluates how the influx of
these IDPs in the country is affecting the socio-economic situation. Secondly,
attention has be paid t ...
1-Sohail Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Sadia Sohail MS Scholar,Department of International Relations,COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shoaib Malik Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, , National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.
Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Initial Perspectives and Stages
Pakistan is a state like other states of the world. When it came out from the
British net the initial stages were very tough for it. It was considered that it will
rejoin India. But the administration of that time took sincere initiatives to
manage the affairs gradually. Cold war started at that time between the
Communist and Capitalist blocks. Newly established states joined one of them.
Pakistan was also one of them. Its foreign policy principles, rules and
regulations are highlighted in this paper. All these steps are discussed below
gradually with the help of primary and secondary sources. It is concluded that
Pakistan had no choice to join the capitalist block because of its financial
position that forced it to take such decisions as compared to India. But security
and sover ...
1-Muhammad Muzaffar Ph. D ScholarDepartment of Political Science,International Islamic University Islamabad.2-Zahid Yaseen Lecturer,Department of Political Science,Govt. Post Graduate College, Gujranwala, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Uroosa Ishfaq Junior Research Fellow,Humanity Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
With the idea of ‘change’ in exiting social system of Pakistan mainly by
eradicating corruption, Pakistani Tehrik-e-Insaf emerged in 1996, under the
leadership of renowned cricket player Imran Khan. He pledged to promote
justice and the establishment of a welfare state. However, the party could hardly
attain electoral success until 2012 when it reached on national political peaks.
Majority of the Pakistani youth from urban areas follow the party agenda with
a new zenith. Unlike other political parties, PTI pledged to challenge the
existing transmissible-monarchy and decided to holds the intra party election.
By using different primary and secondary sources, this article tries to focus on
PTI’s intra party elections in order to denounce the existing socio-political
culture o ...
1-Muhammad Rizwan Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Havelian, KP, Pakistan.2-Manzoor Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Bilal Assistant Registrar, Women University, Swabi, KP, Pakistan.
PTI, Political culture, Democracy, Intra party Elections
Elementary Education and Language Teachers' Professional Development Needs: The Context of Pakistan
Teachers professional development is central to meet the ever-growing
challenges at the elementary school level. In this article we describe the
development and use of Teachers Development Scale at the elementary school
level in Pakistan. An exploratory factor analysis (n=274) showed two basic
dimensions of teachers professional development: community development,
and individual development. Community-based developments included
collaborative projects, participation in conferences, and system of educators for
proficient advancement. On the other hand, individual developments related to
improvement in course work, coaching, observation visits to other schools and
qualification degree programs. The implication of the study identifies
constraints and suggestions for educators, educa ...
1-Fasih Ahmed HOD, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 2-Sana Hussan Lecturer,Department of English, Women University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Safiullah Research Assistant, Humanity Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Professional Development, Language Teachers, Elementary Education
Independent Judiciary and NationBuilding: A Case Study of Pakistan
Independent judiciary is the foundation of a fair and impartial and
constitutionally balanced society. Independence means that judges can freely
make lawful decisions whether involving influential politicians, governmental
personals or ordinary citizens. Thus, ensuring decisions are based on
constitution rather than is the result of political pressures or is favoring some
majority. Endowed with independence, the judicial system serves as a safeguard
of the peoples rights and freedom. In Pakistan, although, our Constitution
stipulates an independent judiciary but our governments, over the years, have
been bent upon ensuring that our judges always live in a climate of fear and
make biased and favorable decisions under the influence of the executives. The
paper concludes that indepe ...
1-Sadaf Farooq Assistant Professor, Department of Politics and International Relations,International Islamic University, Islamabad.2-Abida Rafique PhD Scholar, Department of Politics and International Relations, International Islamic University, Islamabad.3-Ghulam Qumber Deputy Director,ISSRA,National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Independence, Accountability, Democracy, Media, Power
Employee Engagement and High Performance Work System: An Empirical Study
In the competitive working environment, organizations and researchers have
focused their attention to highlight means and ways to gain more advantage on
less resource consumption; hence more focus is paid on channelizing Human
Resource Practices to gain maximum return on Investment. The data is collected
from the banking sector of Pakistan from a sample of 400 employees. The theme
is to analyze the association among the variables at a multi-level i.e. the data is
collected from two pools of respondents, one the staff level employees and the
second are the middle management employees using an adapted questionnaire
comprising of two sections for each pool respectively. Reliability test,
correlation analysis and Regression analysis is conducted on the data. The
findings of the resul ...
Community Development Perspective in the Local Government System of District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The present research study analyzed the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local
Government Act, 2013 and find out the role of elected leaders in community
development. The quantitative research design is used and sample is selected
through simple random sampling technique. The researchers interview 300
respondents from district Mardan. The statistical results show that elected
leaders are performing their effective role in infrastructure development i.e.
schools, basic health units, irrigation channels, roads and safety wall as well as
in dispute resolution and generating revenue for the local government. The
present research study recommended that government should release the
annual development budget to elected leaders on time for addressing the local
citizen needs. Similarly, the study sugg ...
1-Hussain Ali Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan. 2-Syed Ali Shah Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Ahmad Ali Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Local Government, Community, Development, Leaders, Citizens
Traditional and Modern Education in Bukhara (1860s-1917): The Policy Juncture
This paper explores the nature of conflict that unfolded between the supporters
of traditionalist and modernist education in Tsarist Central Asia. The paper
explores the viewpoint of each camp and explores the causes of such approach.
The paper finds that the conflict or divergence was driven by the desire to ensure
the protection of political and economic interests each camp cherished. While
status quo offered traditionalists economic security and political power, the new
order and industrialization that came to Central Asia in the wake of Tsarist
conquests offered modernists a future in which their political power and
economic prosperity was ensured. Both camps diverged in rationalizing
education as means to sustaining their world view. However, they also
converged in their ins ...
1-Ayaz Ahmad Lecturer,Department of English, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan. 2-Sana Hussan Lecturer,Department of English,Women University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Muhammad Shoaib Malik Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan.
Bukhara, Central Asian Education, Islamic education
Investigating the Role of Beliefs and Professional Values in HR Management
Human Resource Management has been accentuated as a theme for research in
various organizations and institutions and sufficient literature has been
introduced on this subject since 1980s in the developed world (Harley and
Hardy 2004). This aspect did not attract attention in developing / underdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Presence of literature regarding HRM at the
workplace and ideological orientation warrants its application in our
organizations/ institutions to help resolve managerial issues being confronted
by the managers, employees and the employers. HRM ideology is distinguished
by the unitarist and pluralist approach at workplace (Batt and Banerjee 2012). ...
1-Muhamamd Zia-ur Rehman Assistant Professor, Department of Leadership and Management Studies, National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Riasat Ali Khan Research scholar, Department of Leadership and Management Studies,National Defence University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Noor Hassan Lecturer,Department of Management Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Implications of Pak-Afghan Transit Trade for Regional Security
Pak-Afghan relations have almost remained far from being normal and under
the grip of allegations and counter allegation due to several bilateral political
issues. However, trade relations have remained unrestrained from several
decades. Afghanistan as a landlocked state always relied on Pakistani ports for
its trade requirements with the rest of the world. Despite ups and downs in the
relations, Pakistan provided the trade provision to Afghanistan under 1965
trade agreement which was replaced in October 2010 with agreement providing
better trade facilities to Afghanistan with India. Pakistan has security concerns
over India, as Indo-Afghan trade will reduce Pakistan’s imports of goods.
Growing Indian presence in the form of huge investment in Afghanistan has
threatened Pakista ...
1-Huma Qayum PhD Scholar,Department of Political Science and IR,International Islamic University Islamabad (IIUI), Pakistan.2-Syed Ali Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Pakistan Studies,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.3-Zubaria Andlib Ph.D Scholar,School of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Potential for Community Based Ecotourism (CBE) along Balochistan Coast, Pakistan
The term CBE is not only an ethic based approach to tourism but to make it sure
the community engages actively and enjoys the accruing profits of tourism
activities. Following the SFA Framework (Suitability, Feasibility, and
Acceptability), this study critically reviewed tourism resources in ecologically
sensitive coastal areas of Balochistan for assessing their potential for
establishment of CBE. Bio-physical, socio-cultural, and tourism information
were collected from coastal communities through a structured questionnaire
and the same was analyzed through SWOT analysis, while, coastal scenic
information was collected personally through a coastal scenic assessment and
analyzed through fuzzy logic analysis. The study confirmed that selected coastal
localities are potential CBE de ...
1-Zia Ullah Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Tourism & Hospitality, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Jehangir Assistant Professor, Institute of Business & Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan3-Javed Iqbal Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP,
Garbage Collection and Rag Picking: An Issue of Child Labor in Rawalpindi (An Anthropological Approach)
The nature of this study was qualitative and covers the children collecting the
Garbage and Rag picking in Rawalpindi city. In the study, Afghan scavengers
were selected for qualitative analyses. The family backgrounds of these
scavengers and the demographic factors were also analyzed. Most of the
qualitative methods including key informant interviews, visit and stay in the
area, In-depth interview of 50 participants was applied to observe the
phenomenon and collect the relevant information. The process of scavenging
and the situation explored presented that besides poverty and economic
pressure, the migration, independent nature of scavenging work, higher income
as capered to other forms of child labor and increased urbanization were the
major causes behind the phenomenon. The s ...
1-Syed Imran Haider Assistant Professor,Department of Sociology, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Ali PhD,Goethe University,Frankfurt Main, Germany.3-Muhammad Bilal Lecturer,Department of Sociology,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
The US presidential elections are over and to the astonishment of media, surveys
and polls; Donald Trump won a stunning victory over his democratic rival
Hillary by 289 electoral votes. The election results were surprising and may not
be digested by many Americans for long time and especially for the Democrats.
The stunning victory of Trump does not seem so dramatic if the past elections
are analyzed. This paper identifies few patterns through the analysis of past
elections that support the Republican victory in the Elections 2016. This article
highlights those patterns calling them the "Trump's Triumph Cards" and
correlates them with the results of the current election. This paper identifies that
the Role of the White Population, Population with 40+ years of age, The Rubio
1-Manzoor Ahmad Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Political Science,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KP, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Rizwan Assistant Professor,Department of Pakistan Studies,Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan.3-Zahir Shah Assistant Professor,Department of Political Science,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
Presidential Elections, Voting Patterns, Primaries, white Population, Millennial Vote
United States Fundamental Interests in Chile and Cuba: A Historical Study
US hegemony as the result of its interventions in Cuba and Chile is a historical
reality. The United States used to be scared that imposition of Communism had
minimized the Americans dominance over there under the policy of
nationalization. Although, the United States had tried his luck in Cuba twice, in
decades of 1960's, to vanish communism dangerous roots, but unfortunately
faced defeat. Again in 1970's decade the United States faced the same threat of
communism (in form of Salvador Allende regime) in Chile. Chile has blessed
with such rich mineral resources like Cuba, so the United States also had
similarly established their strong hold inform of different significant companies.
In order to prevent the power of Salvador Allende and his nationalization policy,
the United State ...
1-Abdul Zahoor Khan Assistant Professor,Department of History & Pakistan Studies,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Nargis Zaman MPhil Scholar, Department of Political Science,University of Peshawar, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.3-Zahir Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, KP, Pakistan.
United States, Latin America, Caribbean, Communism, Capitalism, Cold-War
Teaching of Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone in the Light of Barthes Narrative Codes at BS English Level
J. K. Rowling has written seven novels in the Harry Potter series. This fiction
series has also inspired the educationists and academicians and it has been
introduced in different western colleges as part of their syllabi. Warner
Brothers made the films based on all the novels of Harry Potter series. Harry
Potter World, the studio where these movies were made, is a tourist spot in
London and thousands of fans from all over the world visit it every week. The
present study explores teaching of Harry Potter and The Philosophers Stone
in the light of Barthes Narrative Codes with emphasis on hermeneutic codes
and their roles in the building blocks of narrative structure of the novel. The
result of the study shows the extensive use of enigma and delays in the series to
make it captivat ...
1-Ameer Sultan PhD Scholar,Department of English,International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Rashida Imran Lecturer, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Saira Maqbool Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Applied Linguistics,Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Harry Potter, Philosopher’s Stone, Barthes’s Narrative, Codes
Exploring the Attitudes of Undergraduate Students towards Plagiarism in Public and Private Institutions
The purpose of the study is to explore the attitude of undergraduate students
towards plagiarism from both public and private higher educational
institutions. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect the data through
adopted questionnaire which comprised of three subscales; positive attitude,
negative attitude and subjective norms towards plagiarism. Data was collected
from 309 students of BS-Mathematics (n=155) and BS-English (n=154)
programs in which 153 students are from public and 156 are from private
institutions. Descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used to analyse
the data. The results of the study revealed that undergraduate students from
both programs have medium level of positive and negative attitude towards
plagiarism. The findings show that there i ...
1-Shahzada Qaisar Assistant Professor, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. 2-Sumaira Rashid Assistant Professor, Department of Education, F.C. College, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Aashiq Hussain Dogar Associate Professor, University of Education, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
Islamization in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of Zias Regime
Pakistan was made on the Islamic ideology, it was made to secure the political
and religious rights of the Muslims. It was clearly illustrated in the Objectives
Resolution that no law shall be made repugnant to Quran and Sunnah. The
Islamic Provision of pre 1973 constitution provided base for Islamization. With
the passage of time institutions like Council of Islamic Ideology and Federal
Shariat Court were established. This study is an attempt to analyze whether the
islamization process in law making actually fulfilled the considerations of the
basis of this country. This paper will analyze the attempts in different eras,
specially the era of Zia. Zia claimed to implement and impose Islam in every
walk of life in Pakistan but his Islamization had adverse impacts and criticized
1-Ali Shan Shah Lecturer,Department of Political Science & IR,GC University Faisalabad, Punjab,
Pakistan.2-Muhammad Waris Assistant Professor, Government College Bhalwal, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.3-Abdul Basit Lecturer,Department of Political Science & IR, GC University Faisalabad, Punjab,
Islamization, Zia regime, Political engineering, institionalization, Radicalization
Institutional Determinants of Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan
Owner structure (OS) is an imperative feature of a firm and firm performance
(FP). Recent studies have debated the effect of OS and FP around the world.
Studies argue that OS is one of the important factors of decision making since
principals expect wealth maximization while agents try to increase their
personal gains. However, investor protection (IP) adds to the decision making
with regards to OS since IP ensures that shareholders finds shall not be
expropriated and that IP enhances the trust of all stakeholders and help in
making informed decision. Based on this premise, we investigate the effect of
OS on FP in the presence of IP. Using secondary data from Pakistans capital
market for the years 2008-2015 and applying panel data techniques, we find
that not only OS affects FP b ...
Comparing Perceptions of Public versus Government School Teachers towards Job Satisfaction at District Malakand
Many studies have been carried out on the job satisfaction of employees at
various organizational levels all over the world. However, little is known
about the government versus private schools in district Malakand Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. This study compares the perceptions of private versus
government school teachers job satisfaction related to its six component
i.e, pay and promotion, job security, workload, supervision, work condition
and nature of work. A questionnaire was used for data collection. The data
were collected from 100 teachers both public and private schools on a
convenient sample basis. This study showed that there was a significant
difference among the job satisfaction level of teachers in private versus
public schools on the job satisfaction scale. the results of ...
1-Asghar Ali Assistant Professor,Department of Education,University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (L), Pakistan.2-Iqbal Ahmad Lecturer,Department of Education,University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (L), Pakistan.3-M. Anees-ul-Husnain Shah Assistant Professor, University of Education,D.G Khan Campus, Punjab,Pakistan.
Job Satisfaction, Private and Public Schools comparison
Anti-Culture Machine: The War on Terror and its Effects on Pakhtuns and their Culture
This study critically evaluates the continuing campaign against terrorism. It
especially discusses the counter-terrorism policies of Pakistan and the United
States of America, which affects Pakhtuns and their culture. Figures show there
has been a surge not only in the number but the activities of militants in the
Pakhtun region after the inception of the war on terror. It is very important,
therefore, to know the effects of the war on terror on Pakhtuns culture. Mostly
relying on secondary data and interviews with experts in the area, the study is
a qualitative analysis of the counter-insurgency campaigns and the resultant
response of the local population in the area. The analysis shows two
interrelated facts. The first is that ignoring cultural values in counterinsurgency campai ...
Impact of Shia-Sunni Annoyances on the Contemporary Geopolitics in the Middle East: A Critical Appraisal
The modern-day Shiite-Sunni split between the Sunnite Kingdom of SaudiArabia and Shia theocracy Islamic Republic of Iran is predominantly portrayed
as a sectarian conflict. Instead, their rivalry constituted geopolitical, economic,
military, and religious supremacy and legitimacy in the region of the Middle
East. Riyadh and Tehran are convoluted in a complex rivalry over a volatile
region where both want their dominance and become a Muslim world leader.
Religious dissimilarities are of secondary worth for the political elite of both
the states, despite the doctrinal variance of Wahhabism and Shiism in their
socio-religious setup; the competition of geostrategic influence in the Middle
East makes the primary concern instead. Both countries have directly and
indirectly supported sec ...
1-Inayat Kalim Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.2-Muhammad Mubeen Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.3-Sohail Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Shia-Sunni, Sectarianism, Political Rivalry, Theological Divide, Islamophobia, Muslim Unity, Middle East
Language and Cross-Cultural Construction: A Systemic Functional Interpretation of Hiroko Tanaka in Shamsie's Burnt Shadows
This study interprets and explains Hiroko Tanaka one of the major characters of Burnt Shadows from the perspective of cross-cultural construction by using Transitivity which is a major system for the explanation of experiential meta function at the level of clause in Systemic Functional Grammar. Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows (2009) covers five countries and fifty-six years. The novel is about diverse cultures and significant historical periods of the world represented through the intimate relations among the characters. Systemic Functional Linguistics describes language in four hierarchical levels, and the relation among these levels is that of realization/actualization of higher strata realized in the next lower level. This study exploits this realization from the lower level of lexico gramma ...